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Sub-gingival (below the gum) dental procedures leave material below the gums, including crowns, and lead to an increase in pathogen levels, inflammation, and gum disease (see photo below.) Research has demonstrated that cutting teeth for crowns also increases the chance that the tooth will require a root canal. It is important for patients to fully understand the consequences of their treatment choice and that there are alternatives to unhealthy crowns and fillings such as healthier supra-gingival (above the gum) minimally-invasive dentistry. Crowns are a procedure over 100 years old, and there are better alternatives.